Water Analysis

Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance, generally achieved through treatment of the water, can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact, and drinking water.

Guidelines

A. Contaminants in feed water supplied to a dedicated steam generator
Parameter
Residue on evaporation
Silicate (SiO2)
Iron
Cadmium
Lead
Rest of heavy metals except iron, cadmium, lead
Chloride (Cl-)
Phosphate (P2O5)
Conductivity (at 25 °C)
pH value (degree of acidity)
Appearance
Hardness (Σ Ions of alkaline earth)
B. Contaminants in condensate from steam supply to the sterilizer measured at the sterilizer inlet.
Parameter
Silicate (SiO2) ≤ 0,1 mg/l
Iron ≤ 0,1 mg/l
Cadmium ≤ 0,005 mg/l
Lead ≤ 0,05 mg/l
Rest of heavy metals except iron, cadmium, lead ≤ 0,1 mg/l
Chloride (Cl') ≤ 0,1 mg/l
Phosphate (P2O5) ≤ 0,1 mg/l
Conductivity (at 25 °C)
pH value (degree of acidity) 5 to 7
Appearance
Hardness (Σ Ions of alkaline earth)
C. Recommended Raw Water Quality by KKM for surface, ground or direct impounding water
Parameter
Zinc
Sulphate
Mineral Oil
Phenol
Aldrin/Dieldrin
DDT
Heptachlor/Heptachlor Epoxide
Methoxychlor
Hexachlorobenzene
Lindane
Chlordane
2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)
Gross a
Gross b
Total Coliform
Turbidity
Colour
pH
null
Total Dissolve Oxygen
Biological Oxygen Demand
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Chloride
Anionic Detergent (MBAS)
Ammonia (as N)
Nitrate (as N)
Iron (as Fe)
Fluoride
Hardness
Manganese
Mercury
Cadmium
Selenium
Arsenic
Cyanide
Lead
Chromium
Silver
Copper
Magnesium
Sodium
D. Drinking Water Quality Standard by KKM for surface, ground or direct impounding water
Parameter
Type
Group
Protozoa
Microbiology
Group 1
Faecal Streptococci
Microbiology
Group 1
E-coli or thermotolerent
Microbiology
Group 1
Coliform Bacteria
Microbiology
Group 1
Total Coliform (MPN Method/Membrane filtration method)
Microbiology
Group 1
Helminths
Microbiology
Group 1
Viruses
Microbiology
Group 1
Clostridium Perfringens
Microbiology
Group 1
Combined Residual Chlorine
Physical
Group 1
Colour
Physical
Group 1
pH
Physical
Group 1
Monochloramine
Physical
Group 1
Free Residual Chlorine
Physical
Group 1
Turbidity
Physical
Group 1
Chloride
Inorganic
Group 2
Fluoride
Inorganic
Group 2
Total Dissolved Solid
Inorganic
Group 2
Aluminium
Inorganic
Group 2
Hardness
Inorganic
Group 2
Nitrate (as N)
Inorganic
Group 2
Iron (as Fe)
Inorganic
Group 2
Manganese
Inorganic
Group 2
Ammonia (as N)
Inorganic
Group 2
Cadmium
N/A
Group 3
2,4-Dichlorophenol
N/A
Group 3
Selenium
N/A
Group 3
Dichloroacetic acid
N/A
Group 3
Hydrogen Sulphide
N/A
Group 3
Trichloroacetonitrile
N/A
Group 3
Zinc
N/A
Group 3
Chloral Hydrate
N/A
Group 3
Chloroform
N/A
Group 3
Sulphate
N/A
Group 3
Sodium
N/A
Group 3
Copper
N/A
Group 3
Trichloroacetic acid
N/A
Group 3
Dibromoacetonitrile
N/A
Group 3
Mercury
N/A
Group 3
Mineral Oil
N/A
Group 3
Chromium
N/A
Group 3
Silver
N/A
Group 3
Arsenic
N/A
Group 3
Formaldehyde
N/A
Group 3
Bromate
N/A
Group 3
Dichloroacetonitrile
N/A
Group 3
Nickel
N/A
Group 3
Lead
N/A
Group 3
Bromodichloromethane
N/A
Group 3
Cyanogen Chloride (as CN)
N/A
Group 3
Barium
N/A
Group 3
Magnesium
N/A
Group 3
Dibromochloromethane
N/A
Group 3
Cyanide
N/A
Group 3
Bromoform
N/A
Group 3
Antimony
N/A
Group 3
Phenol
N/A
Group 3
Boron
N/A
Group 3
Uranium
N/A
Group 3
Chlorite
N/A
Group 3
2.4.6-Trichlorophenol
N/A
Group 3
2-Chlorophenol
N/A
Group 3
Molybdenum
N/A
Group 3
Monochlorobenzene
Organic
Group 4
1,1-Dichloroethene
Organic
Group 4
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
Organic
Group 4
Hexachlorobutadiene
Organic
Group 4
Benzo(A) pyrene
Organic
Group 4
1,2-Dichloroethane
Organic
Group 4
Tetrachloroethene
Organic
Group 4
1,2-Dichlorobenzene
Organic
Group 4
Styrene
Organic
Group 4
1,2-Dichloroethene
Organic
Group 4
Benzene
Organic
Group 4
Trichloroethene
Organic
Group 4
Ethylbenzene
Organic
Group 4
Toluene
Organic
Group 4
Dichloromethane
Organic
Group 4
Acrylamide
Organic
Group 4
Microcyctin-LR
Organic
Group 4
Vinyl Chloride
Organic
Group 4
Carbon Tetrachloride
Organic
Group 4
Trichlorobenzene (total)
Organic
Group 4
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate
Organic
Group 4
Nitrotriacetic acid (NTA)
Organic
Group 4
Epichlorohydrin
Organic
Group 4
1,1,1-trichloroethane
Organic
Group 4
Edetic acid (EDTA)
Organic
Group 4
Xylene
Organic
Group 4
Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate
Organic
Group 4
Tributylin Oxide
Organic
Group 4
Bentazone
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
1,2-Dichloropropane
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Permethrin
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Fenoprop
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
1,3-Dichloropropane
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Hexachlorobenzene
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Lindane
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Ametryn
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Cyanazine
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Chlorotoluron
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Terbuthylazine
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Simazine
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Isoproturon
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Trifuralin
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Pendimethalin
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Pentachlorophenol
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Pyridate
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Carbofuran
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Aldrin/Dieldrin
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
2,4,5-T
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Mecoprop
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
1,2-Dibromoethane
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Aldicarb
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Diquat
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
MCPA
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Propanil
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Molinate
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Metochlor
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Dichlorprop
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
DDT
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
2,4-DB
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Atrazine
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Hexachlorobenzena
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Methoxychlor
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Alachlor
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Heptachlor/Heptachlor Epoxide
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Chlordane
Pesticide/Herbicide
Group 4
Gross a
Radioactivity
Group 5
Gross b
Radioactivity
Group 5
E) Parameter Limits for Sewage and Industrial Effluents - Standard A for Discharge up-stream of water supply sources
Parameter
Cadmium
Suspended Solids
pH
Selenium
Silver
Chromiun Trivalent
Oil and Grease
Zinc
Nickel
Colour
Chromium Hexavalent
Copper
Phenol
Arsenic
Fluoride
Barium
Formaldehyde
Free Chlorine
Sulphide
Temperature
COD
Tin
Cyanide
Boron
BOD5 at 20 oC
Lead
Aluminium
Iron (Fe)
Ammonia (as N)
Mercury
Manganese
F) Parameter Limits for Sewage and Industrial Effluents - Standard B for Discharge downstream of water supply sources.
Parameter
Tin
Boron
Barium
Lead
Arsenic
Fluoride
Phenol
Colour
BOD5 at 20 oC
Suspended Solids
Mercury
Aluminium
COD
Iron (Fe)
Cyanide
Temperature
Zinc
Selenium
Silver
Manganese
Ammonia (as N)
Oil and Grease
Chromiun Trivalent
Chromium Hexavalent
Nickel
Cadmium
Formaldehyde
Sulphide
Free Chlorine
Copper
pH
D. Drinking Water Quality Standard by KKM for surface, ground or direct impounding water
Parameter
Type
Chloride (as Cl)
Inorganic
Nitrite (calculated as NO2-)
Inorganic
Nitrate (Calculated as NO3-)
Inorganic
Hardness (as CaCO3)
Inorganic
Fluoride (as F)
Inorganic
Ammonia (as N)
Inorganic
Sulphate
Inorganic
Residual Chlorine (Free)
Inorganic
Cyanide (as CN)
Inorganic
Nitrate (as N)
Inorganic
Anionic Detergent (MBAS)
Inorganic
Iron (as Fe)
Metal
Nickel
Metal
Magnesium
Metal
Sodium (as Na)
Metal
Zinc (as Zn)
Metal
Aluminium (as Al)
Metal
Barium
Metal
Arsenic (as As)
Metal
Chromium (as Cr)
Metal
Copper (as Cu)
Metal
Manganese (as Mn)
Metal
Silver (as Ag)
Metal
Antimony
Metal
Mercury (as Hg)
Metal
Lead (as Pb)
Metal
Selenium (as Se)
Metal
Cadmium (as Cd)
Metal
Boron
Metal
E-coli or thermotolerent (MPN Method)
Microbiology
Total Coliform (Membrane filtration method)
Microbiology
Sulphite reducing anaerob (Membrane filter)
Microbiology
Faecal Streptococci (membrane filter)
Microbiology
Total Coliform (MPN Method)
Microbiology
Pseudomonas aeroginosa (Membrane filter)
Microbiology
Clostridium Perfringens (Membrane filter)
Microbiology
Biocide (Total)
Organic
Bromoform
Organic
Bromodichloromethane
Organic
Styrene
Organic
Mineral Oil
Organic
Phenol
Organic
Chloroform
Organic
Carbon chlorofiorm extract
Organic
Pesticides/herbicides
Organic
Dibromochloromethane
Organic
Aldrin/Dieldrin
Pesticide
Lindane
Pesticide
Hexachlorobenzene
Pesticide
Endosulfan
Pesticide
Heptachlor/Heptachlor Epoxide
Pesticide
Methoxychlor
Pesticide
Chlordane
Pesticide
DDT
Pesticide
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Pesticide
Turbidity (Nephelometric turbidity Unit
Physical
pH
Physical
Colour (True Colour Unit)
Physical
Gross a
Radioactivity
Gross b
Radioactivity